The thermal conductivity of high-purity platinum was measured between 300 and 1 000 °K. Watson F. R. 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Franz Karl Achard made the first platinum crucible in 1784. [71][72], In watchmaking, Vacheron Constantin, Patek Philippe, Rolex, Breitling, and other companies use platinum for producing their limited edition watch series. Platinum is more ductile than gold, silver or copper, thus being the most ductile of pure metals, but it is less malleable than gold. At times, the platinum seemed malleable, but when it was alloyed with iridium, it would be much more brittle. [42] (Side effects of cisplatin include nausea and vomiting, hair loss, tinnitus, hearing loss, and nephrotoxicity. Ulloa also anticipated the discovery of platinum mines. [12] It reacts vigorously with fluorine at 500 °C (932 °F) to form platinum tetrafluoride. single phase was comprehensively surveyed by the laser flash method. The most abundant of these is 195Pt, comprising 33.83% of all platinum. Using the 3ω method, the thermal conductivity of platinum was determined to vary between 71.8 and 80.7 Wm(-1) K(-1) over the temperature range of 300 to 725 K, in agreement with published values measured for bulk samples. Platinum is one of the least reactive metals. [39] Platinum also exhibits negative oxidation states at surfaces reduced electrochemically. The standard hydrogen electrode also uses a platinized platinum electrode due to its corrosion resistance, and other attributes. [9] Platinum(II,IV) oxide, Pt3O4, is formed in the following reaction: Unlike palladium acetate, platinum(II) acetate is not commercially available. The current OSHA standard is 2 micrograms per cubic meter of air averaged over an 8-hour work shift. For example, a small box from burial of Shepenupet II was found to be decorated with gold-platinum hieroglyphics. [45] However, the extent of early Egyptians' knowledge of the metal is unclear. Watchmakers appreciate the unique properties of platinum, as it neither tarnishes nor wears out (the latter quality relative to gold). The resistance wire in the thermometer is made of pure platinum (e.g. [18], Platinum has six naturally occurring isotopes: 190Pt, 192Pt, 194Pt, 195Pt, 196Pt, and 198Pt. Platinum is used as an alloying agent for various metal products, including fine wires, noncorrosive laboratory containers, medical instruments, dental prostheses, electrical contacts, and thermocouples. [59], One suitable method for purification for the raw platinum, which contains platinum, gold, and the other platinum-group metals, is to process it with aqua regia, in which palladium, gold and platinum are dissolved, whereas osmium, iridium, ruthenium and rhodium stay unreacted. Chabeneau realized the infusibility of platinum would lend value to objects made of it, and so started a business with Joaquín Cabezas producing platinum ingots and utensils. [6] Compounds containing platinum, such as cisplatin, oxaliplatin and carboplatin, are applied in chemotherapy against certain types of cancer. Platinum finds use in jewellery, usually as a 90–95% alloy, due to its inertness. Pure platinum is a lustrous, ductile, and malleable, silver-white metal. At Platinum, Alaska, about 17,000 kg (550,000 ozt) was mined between 1927 and 1975. [36], Several barium platinides have been synthesized in which platinum exhibits negative oxidation states ranging from −1 to −2. In 1752, Henrik Scheffer published a detailed scientific description of the metal, which he referred to as "white gold", including an account of how he succeeded in fusing platinum ore with the aid of arsenic.

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