Now, by analyzing how sets relate to each other and by theorizing the causal significance of their relation, it becomes possible to investigate complex causality. Qualitative researchers who are looking for a systematic approach to assess causation comparatively might find QCA helpful, and quantitative researchers might find QCA interesting if, for instance, they are looking for an alternative to the net effects approach. Suppose that all countries with that condition are also member of the outcome sets of countries with a relatively high level of female representation. It will also help you determine if the course offers the knowledge and skills you are looking for. Next to the assessment of complex causality, a more practical reason to work with QCA is that the method can be used for small and intermediate samples or populations. Approaching causation like this is different from the net effects approach, which focuses on the effect of individual variables. There's no presupposition that you've studied set theory before, or logic before. A set Sis simply any collection of elements. Another aspect of complex causality is equifinality, which means that more than one condition or combination of conditions might lead to the same outcome. • The course is designed for people who have no or little experience with QCA. %���� ~[�8ȶMV�y��j�fMW��[�;��ۗ*YqŤ�����X�6B�$I�E�4y�o'6��~ùf��`�2���?��l>��:�p�$RQ�_�Ҝ�FyG/Ύ>qPN��4dI�b�Af��wGoޅ�-��e2�&�[�r�R2d"�a\�^�{*��dDZ�(yHD�� urO�x>�%"�A�px@x�4 ��I�gWE�֊�&A8�2nl����-��́7���hul�fvYW�N����z���=��f�։L�~��� �sM���7��~$)l�1�0��{5ZB��p�4�Ȟ���qɇ�@�17��ű2��ʪ�ž��{��o�0��Un���~]4������ې+Sn�A�E��j��4AK؍]7�yv^�E��"��'憉B���8� �Q�"�}���ʺ�Am{�ƚ%�����F���\s��18���o �L��@u�=��L����u� �}�J'�=�B�)�M3�sע�9@#�V��%h#�F�����h��5n�F'�%�{Zx*�4�^c�L��[w6:e���v��HA���[{�nD�R��(�^ �����.h�N���,�F[�iil� Ideally, the number of cases is at least 10. • Please find the full list of references for all citations (mentioned in this course guide, in the MOOC, and in the assignments) in appendix B of the course guide. • The publication by Schneider and Wagemann (2012) is comprehensive and detailed, and covers almost all topics discussed in the MOOC. Good day everybody. QCA thus allows for a context-specific analysis of causation. Explore. As mentioned in the previous video, with calibration, the researcher determines whether cases are member of the sets with the outcome and conditions. In the next weeks, I will explain step by step and with increasingly more detail how the different research phases, starting with design and calibration than truth table and logical minimization, and finally, the interpretation of the results, amount to assessment of set relations and complex causality. For the purpose of this explanation, let's stick to the simpler example with just one condition. �ת��)-Kr�b��2t,����/0�}�_��*�(�B���:���>83�x�*��!��T��$���Sh&G�$�LF�$S1�J� 2�-s��1��${ؘk/���q��!���o��f-'�؆H9� d?�����A0�5{�D��pK�ܵ��C��ض�yih�"^�E{���|������N����pxu �ď�4�Qj�fַ�@u�����`���W}��:?�;~C- �I��}LH�v�d�aJ ��r��I 6>OJ���#�吗$�u]mR��1bW�K���Ͳ�0�ߦ�Ң�&���}�sǜ��c �uo���k��wh��Be�H��1���ݦ�h��}����-�#S�� 90�CĂ B��v6D��H�{�ߐ��S/%�",be�X���+�4s"� ����xl�_. /Length 3089 Further, because some of the covered topics are quite technical (particularly topics in weeks 3 and 4 of the course), we provide several worked examples that supplement the videos by offering more specific illustrations and explanation. The aim of this course is to learn the basics of set theory and to simultaneously enhance our ability to write formal proofs. This course will give you a general overview of set theory which will help you pass your exams. Construction Engineering and Management Certificate, Machine Learning for Analytics Certificate, Innovation Management & Entrepreneurship Certificate, Sustainabaility and Development Certificate, Spatial Data Analysis and Visualization Certificate, Master's of Innovation & Entrepreneurship. Who this course is for: Browse; Top Courses; Log In; Join for Free; 1.3. • There are 10 assignments. In one case, the presence of a condition might lead to an outcome and in another case, the absence of that condition might lead to that outcome. The same line of reasoning applies to more complex models with multiple conditions. x��ZKs�6��WL���* B��H�)�]Imj���R��I�9�Lr$��o7|�@=l�v/"�@���_7�.W���Q������ۗ\�x��0嫳�U�T��fb�:ۮ��f��z#�R��!4~k�Ӷu��z�� For the GRE, much of the intricate parts of set theory (the axioms of set theory, the axiom of choice, etc.) 17 0 obj << • QCA is also useful for quantitative researchers who like to assess alternative (more complex) aspects of causation, such as how factors work together in producing an effect. The non-occurrence of the outcome needs to be assessed separately. 1 A Crash Course in Set Theory Sets are, in a sense, what mathematics are founded on. Good pacing, highlights are being discussed, easy to follow. Nice introductory course. Set. Video created by Erasmus University Rotterdam for the course "Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA)". /Filter /FlateDecode organizations) and micro (e.g. Gianni Krakoff, Computable Reducibility of Equivalence Relations. Any collection of items can form a set. • QCA can be used for the analysis of cases on all levels: macro (e.g. The complex causality on which QCA focuses has several characteristics. In the previous video, we discussed that QCA assesses a type of causation that is considered to be more complex than the net effects approach in statistical techniques. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that w(���B� 6���Ѡ�LePmG�������E�F�qp�����> D P�Ԏ�@�GN�c^ -) i���1H?��T4�ҟ��������L��Oe�כ��J��߆�/8�P#���KG���6��Y��-m%s���S���m��AfCʋ������'��8��dD��hv��*�K�8�) ��8�#enIz�2�n��O�b&�a��>��#'�kH��M�� TPI��A�DL����b����4u�2��T������q|e����L��n��4�"I��#��e�8s���,#�b��@n2��mStƫ��ő��/By'#΄� �U:Tq��2����̴f��щ&j�����Ft�x_�JI��ő���C�;J�r���/ǃ��Y���Q��=��iA���(3��r��`>������L:n�Ao��%|�K��W�X �r^���Mb�bo(Fc5:F����9�f0r��޻��cmS����t4���]�J:>���GOӃ��6��7,��@Gd2����ӵ�������F�A��M� ,^�� This is called conjunctional causation. Please find the course guide under Resources in the main menu. • After the course you will understand the methodological foundations of QCA. The yellow circle visualizes the set of cases with condition X, meaning, countries with quotas. %PDF-1.5 • The activities of the course include watching the videos, consulting supplementary material where necessary, and doing assignments. Books have to be bought or might be available in a university library; journal publications have to be ordered online or are accessible via a university license. First, QCA investigates how conditions work together as a causal recipe in causing an outcome. To illustrate this, let's go back to our example of the study about international differences in the level of female parliamentary representation. Now, this is a simple example with one condition. Only assignments 1 to 6 and 8 are mandatory. • After the course you will know how to conduct a basic QCA study by yourself. We denote a set Sby its elements, • The MOOC takes five weeks. Further, QCA identifies if and how a condition works differently in different cases. In set theoretic terms, quotas would be considered a sufficient condition for the outcome, sufficient in the sense that the presence of quotas by itself produces a high level of female representation. • QCA is relevant for researchers who normally work with qualitative methods and are looking for a more systematic way of comparing and assessing cases. These worked examples can be found under Resources in the main menu. If you want to investigate phenomena that can be understood in terms of set relations, and this is often the case, and if you are interested in assessing complex causality based on in-depth study of cases and systematic comparison between cases, then you might find QCA useful. We will further discuss the general features of the QCA research field in the next lecture. De nition. Supervised by Samuel Coskey and John Clemens, Spring 2019. They also indicate that the opposite is not true. Set theory has provided a standard foundation for mathematics, in a sense that every mathematical object can be defined in terms of the single notion of a “set”, and all of mathematics can be formalised within the axiom system ZFC of Set Theory. supports HTML5 video. This means that all cases with outcome Y also have condition X. X, in that sense, is a necessary condition for Y. Y needs to occur. Basics. In this video, I will discuss the complex causality which QCA investigates and the set theoretic approach which enables such analysis. Further, the method can be interesting to both quantitative and qualitative researchers. Here, the blue circle visualizes the set of cases with outcome Y, which are countries with relatively high female representation. • Note that the supplementary readings are mostly not freely available. The activities should be done in that order: first watch the videos; then consult supplementary material (if desired) for more details and examples; then do the assignments.

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