The ancient Greeks were convinced, anecdotally, that a certain king had been stirred to arms by the sound of a flute playing a tune in the Phrygian mode. This historical Midas is believed to be the same person named as Mita in Assyrian texts from the period and identified as king of the Mushki. According to the Bibliotheca, the Greek hero Heracles slew a king Mygdon of the Bebryces in a battle in northwest Anatolia that if historical would have taken place about a generation before the Trojan War. The kingless Phrygians had turned for guidance to the oracle of Sabazios ("Zeus" to the Greeks) at Telmissus, in the part of Phrygia that later became part of Galatia. In 133 BC, the remnants of Phrygia passed to Rome. Josephus called Togarmah "the Thrugrammeans, who, as the Greeks resolved, were named Phrygians". According to Plutarch, because of his splendid exploits, great things were called "manic" in Phrygia. A series of digs have opened Gordium as one of Turkey's most revealing archeological sites. A tomb from the period, popularly identified as the "Tomb of Midas", revealed a wooden structure deeply buried under a vast tumulus, containing grave goods, a coffin, furniture, and food offerings (Archaeological Museum, Ankara). The Phrygians also venerated Sabazios, the sky and father-god depicted on horseback. In the theory of Western music, a mode is a type of musical scale coupled with a set of characteristic melodic behaviors. Phrygian is the third mode of the major scale. This Midas appears to have had good relations and close trade ties with the Greeks, and reputedly married an Aeolian Greek princess. In the mythic age before the Trojan war, during a time of an interregnum, Gordius (or Gordias), a Phrygian farmer, became king, fulfilling an oracular prophecy. Tantalus was endlessly punished in Tartarus, because he allegedly killed his son Pelops and sacrificially offered him to the Olympians, a reference to the suppression of human sacrifice. 1977. [citation needed] It is the fifth mode of the harmonic minor scale. Let’s start with the major scale. Salutaris with Synnada as its capital comprised the eastern portion of the region and Pacatiana with Laodicea on the Lycus as capital of the western portion. The Phrygians are associated in Greek mythology with the Dactyls, minor gods credited with the invention of iron smelting, who in most versions of the legend lived at Mount Ida in Phrygia. There are indications in the Iliad that the heart of the Phrygian country was further north and downriver than it would be in later history. [12] This interpretation also gets support from Greek legends about the founding of Phrygia's main city Gordium by Gordias and of Ancyra by Midas,[13] which suggest that Gordium and Ancyra were believed to date from the distant past before the Trojan War. The name of the earliest known mythical king was Nannacus (aka Annacus). "Key, Mode, Species". Stories of the heroic age of Greek mythology tell of several legendary Phrygian kings: According to Homer's Iliad, the Phrygians participated in the Trojan War as close allies of the Trojans, fighting against the Achaeans. Midas was either a judge or spectator, and said he preferred Pan's pipes to Apollo's lyre, and was given donkey's ears as a punishment. He unwisely competed in music with the Olympian Apollo and inevitably lost, whereupon Apollo flayed Marsyas alive and provocatively hung his skin on Cybele's own sacred tree, a pine. Phrygians gradually became assimilated into other cultures by the Early Middle Ages; after the Turkish conquest of Anatolia, the name "Phrygia" passed out of usage as a territorial designation. Its capital was established at Dascylium, modern Ergili. The Phrygian tonos or harmonia is named after the ancient kingdom of Phrygia in Anatolia. The climate is harsh with hot summers and cold winters; olives will not easily grow here and the land is mostly used for livestock grazing and the production of barley. [21] This Midas is thought to have reigned Phrygia at the peak of its power from about 720 BC to about 695 BC (according to Eusebius) or 676 BC (according to Julius Africanus). Herodotus also claims that Phrygian colonists founded the Armenian nation. Tantalus was also falsely accused of stealing from the lotteries he had invented. In the chromatic genus, this is a minor third followed by two semitones. Ionian Mode. Visitors from Phrygia were reported to have been among the crowds present in Jerusalem on the occasion of Pentecost as recorded in Acts 2:10. Another popular song that uses the Phrygian scale is Oléby John Coltrane. The name "Phrygian" was applied to the third of these eight church modes, the authentic mode on E, described as the diatonic octave extending from E to the E an octave higher and divided at B, therefore beginning with a semitone-tone-tone-tone pentachord, followed by a semitone-tone-tone tetrachord (Powers 2001): The ambitus of this mode extended one tone lower, to D. The sixth degree, C, which is the tenor of the corresponding third psalm tone, was regarded by most theorists as the most important note after the final, though the fifteenth-century theorist Johannes Tinctoris implied that the fourth degree, A, could be so regarded instead (Powers 2001). [16] However, Pausanias believed that Mygdon's tomb was located at Stectorium in the southern Phrygian highlands, near modern Sandikli.[17]. Gordias refounded a capital at Gordium in west central Anatolia, situated on the old trackway through the heart of Anatolia that became Darius's Persian "Royal Road" from Pessinus to Ancyra, and not far from the River Sangarius. South of Dorylaeum, there an important Phrygian settlement, Midas City (Yazılıkaya, Eskişehir), is situated in an area of hills and columns of volcanic tuff. Homer calls the Phrygians "the people of Otreus and godlike Mygdon". It produces a darkly and tension-filled sound: Its Spanish and oriental timbre is much loved in heavy metal, jazz and flamenco music. Scholars of the Hittites believe Tegarama was in eastern Anatolia – some locate it at Gurun – far to the east of Phrygia. Some scholars dismiss the claim of a Phrygian migration as a mere legend, likely arising from the coincidental similarity of their name to the Bryges, and have theorized that migration into Phrygia could have occurred more recently than classical sources suggest. Phrygia was famous for its wine and had "brave and expert" horsemen. During the 8th century BC, the Phrygian kingdom with its capital at Gordium in the upper Sakarya River valley expanded into an empire dominating most of central and western Anatolia and encroaching upon the larger Assyrian Empire to its southeast and the kingdom of Urartu to the northeast. It was overrun by the Turks in the aftermath of the Battle of Manzikert (1071). Ancient Greek Phrygian. [24] The Turks had taken complete control in the 13th century, but the ancient name of Phrygia remained in use until the last remnant of the Byzantine Empire was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1453. "Vom alten zum neuen Adam: Phrygischer Kirchenton und moderne Tonalität in J.S.Bachs Kantate 38". 1996. Southwestern Phrygia is watered by the Maeander (Büyük Menderes River) and its tributary the Lycus, and contains the towns of Laodicea on the Lycus and Hierapolis. Phrygia describes an area on the western end of the high Anatolian plateau, an arid region quite unlike the forested lands to the north and west. Scholars figure that Assyrians called Phrygians "Mushki" because the Phrygians and Mushki, an eastern Anatolian people, were at that time campaigning in a joint army. However, the Greek source cited by Josephus is unknown, and it is unclear if there was any basis for the identification other than name similarity. [26] Thereafter, the kingdom of Phrygia seems to have become fragmented among various kings. Some classical writers[which?] [15] According to Euripides, Quintus Smyrnaeus and others, this Mygdon's son, Coroebus, fought and died in the Trojan War; he had sued for the hand of the Trojan princess Cassandra in marriage.

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