Yu, Y.-S. (2003). Another important feature of East Asian religions to consider could be emotions, and again, research on Eastern religions seems to have raised some new questions. via a syncretistic process in some wholly new way. Oligopoly is the most common type of religion-state relations in the world today. ), of justice and legitimacy: The Ontario symposium. Such behaviours could include a higher degree of compliance with infection control and hygienic measures, and a greater tendency to comply with the orders issued by local authorities. A meta-analytic review of, Ho, D. Y. Modalities of doing religion. 0000001237 00000 n Personal safety and positive life outcomes: Cross-national evidence from the World Values Survey. Latin, America, a region with many collectivistic countries and collectivistic religions, may nonetheless, have different intersections of culture and religion than East Asian. University Press. Any culture (surely including, religion) is in fact a broad category and set of diverse subcultures which may vary in individual-. Historical, literatures revealed that some Chinese pioneering elites, like Sun Y, first Republic in Modern China), converted to Christianity (Smith, 1985/2005). Large-scale psy-. Pengakuan akan budaya dan norma masing-masing yang ada di dalam media sosial membuat sebuah tekanan yang dapat memicu benturan budaya. In particular, research has explored how an individual’s religion (religious beliefs, religious denomination, strength of religious devotion, etc.) confronting persistent forms of exclusion and makes the case for greater pluralism in equality law frameworks. Furthermore, Protestants showed higher internal attributions than Catholics did. terms are used precisely and appropriately. Against all the odds of eradication measures dictated by the atheist ideology and secularization effects of modernization, religion has survived and has been reviving and thriving despite Communist rule. One example could be belief in a just world (BJW), or the social axiom of, punished (Lerner, 1980). In doing this, we think it is interesting and important to remember that religions (like any other, form of culture) are complex, and a given religion might have certain individualistic characteris-, tics and certain collectivistic characteristics. 0000001661 00000 n B. Time frame and justice. ), Zeng, R., & Greenfield, P. M. (2015). Lost in the market, saved at McDonald’s: Conversion to Christianity in urban China. ... Second, religion is a culture that is typically nested within a different (e.g., national) culture (A. Published online: 10 Nov 2020. The recognition of each other's culture and norms in social media creates a pressure that can trigger a clash of cultures. Cohen and colleagues (2005), theorized that in the United States, American Jews and Catholics as well as other groups are, relatively more likely to subscribe to collectivistic instantiations of religion, while American, Protestants, and perhaps other groups as well, were particularly likely to subscribe to individu, alistic forms of religion. The absorption of information from content available on social media between the two cultures can be subjective and affect attitudes. independent and interdependent views of the self (Fiske, Kitayama, Markus, & Nisbett, 1998; Markus & Kitayama, 1991; Triandis, 1995), are almost certainly the most well-studied dimen-, sions of culture in psychology (Cohen, 2009). Both Hinduism and Buddhism (usually, considered collectivistic, though we will return to this below) have theories of an “inner-self”, (ātman) and do pay much attention to the cultivation of certain internal mind-sets. Cohen, A. Religions might promote individualism or collectivism in broader cultures; religions might, also be shaped by a predominant, cultural level individualistic or collectivistic focus. Even if people do not answer the question “What is your religious, often in China, they still might often engage in Buddhist practices by seeking to accrue karmic, merit, chanting from sacred scrolls, burning incense sticks to venerate a deity or spirit, and so, Lest this seem a view on religion that is totally alien in a W, out that there are parallels even in the W, Catholic or Jewish because their religious identities are not solely based on their faith but also on. The book also has discussed the reestablishment of law in the late Qing Dynasty and the beginning of the Chinese law's transition to modernity. It presents a fresh definition of religion for the social scientific study that classifies the religious and religion-like phenomena into a clear order. Religiosity was related to desire for emotions that strengthen religious beliefs, but not to desire for socially engaging or socially disengaging emotions. BJW may also come from more secular underpin-, it may have religious roots, is now an almost entirely nonreligious point of view concerning the. B., Ruston, S., Corman, S. R., Blais, C., & Brewer, G. A., Jr. (2016). All rights are reserved. individualism and collectivism and how they might relate to religion. This pattern could be explained by differences in individualism and collectivism. Religion’s evolutionary landscape: Counterintuition, committment. Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Current Directions in Psychological Science, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological, (Vol. Dalam kajian konseptual ini menggambarkan pengguna media sosial yang terlibat dengan narasi sosial yang panjang atau konten media sosial yang kompleks menjadikan cultural crossfit atau persilangan budaya menjadi salah satu aspek dalam terjadinya benturan.Kata Kunci: Media Sosial, Imperialisme Budaya, Orientalisme, Oksidentalisme, Konten Media Sosial AbstractIn the current era, social media has merged into a primary need for self- actualization, with unlimited users and can be accessed anytime anywhere in the world, making content on social media an interesting issue related to imperialism. There are dangers, however, in accepting cultural relativism without any constraint, such as respect for human life and dignity. One might ask, for example, if Mao’, internal factors was a consequence of, or a rebellion against, broader cultural or religious influ-. Comparison Table Between Religion and Culture. We provide evidence that a five-item version of intrinsic religiosity is invariant across the U.S. samples and predicts less warmth toward atheists and gay men/lesbians, validating the scale. For example, Fiske (2002) pointed out that we often treat “Asian American” as a meaningful category, the fact that this label applies to people from thousands of cultures (and so too for terms like, try of the world, such as within China, there are dozens of ethnicities and many religious, A second point is related to the necessity to think carefully about assigning the labels of indi-, vidualistic or collectivistic tendencies to psychological traits or behaviors. Catholics were expected to have features of both. Au, E. W., Chiu, C.-Y., Zhang, Z.-X., Mallorie, L., Chaturvedi, A., Viswanathan, M., & Savani, K. (2012). Research focusing on measurement of BJW has led to critiques of the original Just World Scale (Rubin & Peplau, Journal of Social Issues, 29, 1973; Journal of Social Issues, 31, 1975) and a trend toward multiple scales assessing different forms of BJW; most notably, personal vs. general forms of BJW. 0000008462 00000 n 0000003502 00000 n (2003). Eastern collectivism shapes and has shaped the development of Eastern religions. They reviewed similarities and differences in a broad array of domains, (like cognition, emotion, and morality between religions, including how such similarities and dif, ferences might parallel or interact with other cultural factors, like socioeconomic ones), and con, sidered interactions between ethnicity and religion, including work on acculturation and, immigration. (1995). An examination of the effect of victimization as a stressor of personal safety was also conducted, with personal victimization (H6), and the victimization of a family member (H7), both acting as stressors of personal safety in most of the countries. Similar findings have emerged from other work examining the interaction between culture and religious belief on well-being: ... Benturan yang ditimbulkan oleh imperialisme budaya timur ke budaya barat juga menekankan dari segi agama (Parker Gumucio, 2008), agama sangat penting dalam memahami individu dan budaya, dan agama secara inheren bersifat budaya, ... Benturan yang ditimbulkan oleh imperialisme budaya timur ke budaya barat juga menekankan dari segi agama (Parker Gumucio, 2008), agama sangat penting dalam memahami individu dan budaya, dan agama secara inheren bersifat budaya (Cohen et al., 2016) hal ini vokal sekali dilakukan oleh budaya masyarakat timur yang harus hidup selaras dengan agama, ajaran Islam, Hindu, Budha, Konghucu dan kepercayaan timur lainnya yang berpatokan dengan alam dan dewa maupun nabi sebagai gambaran jelas bahwa penentangan akan budaya barat yang seakan anti-agama atau anti-Tuhan karena kebebasan yang mereka miliki. However, personal safety has been understudied in psychological literature, as has its role as an antecedent of well-being and social justice.

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