(Page 34). A principal reason for this view was that mating and sex appeared to be lacking in certain pathogenic protists whose ancestors branched off early from the eukaryotic family tree. They have suggested creating an entire Islamic jurisdiction including polygamy, but these proposals have been rejected by Serbia. [58], While polygynous marriages are not legally recognized under the civil marriage laws of Malawi, customary law affords a generous amount of benefits to polygynous unions, ranging from inheritance rights to child custody. These include sororal polygyny, in which the co-wives are sisters; and hut polygyny, in which each wife has her own residence and the husband visits them in rotation. Zhang Zongchang, a well-known warlord, notably declared he had three 'unknowns' - unknown number of rifles, unknown amount of money, and unknown number of concubines. According to Bove and Valeggia, women who are senior wives often misuse their position to obtain healthcare benefits in countries one wife can become a recipient. Some clues can be taken from human anatomy, which is essentially unchanged from the prehistoric past: Some have suggested that these anatomical factors signify some degree of sperm competition, though as levels of genetic and societal promiscuity are highly varied across cultures,[15] this evidence is far from conclusive. Polyandry, the practice of a woman having more than one husband, is not permitted. As the alternative term "pair bonding" implies, this is usual in monogamy. widows). [22][23][24], Scholars have argued that in farming systems where men do most of the agriculture work, a second wife can be an economic burden rather than an asset. A. [46] A 2019 study of 800 rural African ethnic groups published in the Journal of Conflict Resolution found that "young men who belong to polygynous groups feel that they are treated more unequally and are readier to use violence in comparison to those belonging to monogamous groups. Additionally, paragraph 1645 of "The Goods and Requirements of Conjugal Love" states "The unity of marriage, distinctly recognized by our Lord, is made clear in the equal personal dignity which must be accorded to husband and wife in mutual and unreserved affection. One male mating with one female B. In Africa polygyny was believed to be part of the way to build an empire. [10][page needed]. [69], Despite the historical and cultural history of polygyny among Muslim South Africans, polygynous unions are officially illegal on the federal level in South Africa. Chechen politician Ramzan Kadyrov actively advocated for polygynous marriage to gain legal recognition. "[122][123][124][125][126][127], As such, the Lutheran World Federation hosted a regional conference in Africa, in which the acceptance of polygynists and their wives into full membership by the Lutheran Church in Liberia was defended as being permissible. In such a case, the husband cannot marry another woman as long as he is married to his wife. Low B (1088) Measures of polygyny in humans. [91], Although non-Muslim Russian populations have historically practiced monogamy, Russian politician Vladimir Zhirinovsky offered to legalize polygyny to encourage population growth and correct the demographic crisis of Russians. [54] Among the Logoli of Kenya, the fear of AIDS or becoming infected with the HIV virus has informed women's decisions about entering polygynous marriages. After her death, he married multiple women, mostly widows,[137] for social and political reasons. [12] Drawing on the work of Ester Boserup, Goody notes that in some of the sparsely populated regions where shifting cultivation takes place in Africa, much of the work is done by women. [10], From an evolutionary standpoint, females are more prone to practice monogamy because their reproductive success is based on the resources she is able to acquire through reproduction rather than the quantity of offspring she produces. Priests and ministers not bound by any monastery were allowed to marry. Indigenous populations of Australia have been noted to engage in polygamous relationships. Fundamentalist Latter-Day Saints' teachings include plural marriage, a form of polygyny first taught by Joseph Smith, the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement. NPR's All Things Considered estimated in 2008 that 50,000 to 100,000 American Muslims live in polygamous families.[104]. [a] However, Deuteronomy 17:17 does state that the king shall not have too many wives. Proposed explanations for the protective effect of polygyny include the distinctive structure of sexual networks produced by polygyny, the disproportionate recruitment of HIV positive women into marriages with a polygynous husband, and the lower coital frequency in conjugal dyads of polygynous marriages. Stephen Eliot Smith, "'The Mormon Question' Revisited: Anti-Polygamy Laws and the Free Exercise Clause", LL.M.

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